Population: 29 million
Growth Rate: 2.5-3%
Distribution: 30% urban, 70% rural
Population Density: 11 per sq.km (concentrated around water resources)
Life Expectancy: 52 years (men) 55 years (women)
Birth Rate: 42 per 1000 population
Infant Mortality: 80 per 1000 live births
Adult Literacy: 43% (men) 15% (women)
An estimated 2 million people have died as a result of war since 1983; some four million people are displaced as a consequence of war.
Area: 2.5 million square kilometres / 1 million square miles
Principal vegetable products
Cotton (40% of export earnings), sesame, gum arabic, sorghum (dura), millet (dukhun), peanuts (ful sudani), wheat, maize, dates, sugar cane, molasses; oil from sesame/cottonseed/peanuts.
Principal animal products
Sheep, camels, cattle, goats (meat, hides and skins).
petroleum, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold
Population (1997 estimate):32.6 million
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea between Egypt (N); Eritrea and Ethiopia (E); Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo (S); and Libya, Chad and the Central African Republic (W).
Size: 2,505,810 km2 (967,000 square miles)
Major Cities: Capital - Khartoum [Khartoum, Omdurman and Khartoum North]; Juba, Wau, Malakal, Atbara, Kassala, Wad Medani, Nyala, el-Fasher, el-Obeid, Port Sudan.
Languages: Arabic (official), Dinka, Bedawi, Nuer, Fur, Hausa, Zande, English, and various other Nilo-Saharan, and Afro-Asiatic languages.
Major Ethnic/Linguistic Groups: [Afro]-Arab (c.40-50% ), Beja (c.5%), Dinka (c.12%), Fur (c.2%), Nuba, Nubian, Nuer (c.5%), Zande/Azande (c.2%).
The Arab group is ethnically diverse, but bound by language and religion.
The Dinka are the largest single ethnic group.
More than 500 languages from over 50 language groups are spoken.
Muslim (Sunni) c.60-70% - Islam is the state religion, but many Sudanese Muslims are more influenced by tolerant Sufi philosophies than by the absolutist attitudes of the National Islamic Front. Degrees of orthodoxy are variable. In Darfur, sorghum beer (marissa) is a long-established.nutritional resource consumed by otherwise devout Muslims.
Traditional beliefs c.35% - Belief in traditional African religions persists among converts to monotheism.
Christian 5-15% - Growing adherence
to Christianity is reported among southerners, Nuba and other marginalised
peoples in Sudan, as they have been increasingly subjected to second-class
citizenship and discrimination on account of their perceived "backwardness".
Many are converting to Christianity to resist the forcible imposition of
Islam by northerners who regard believers in traditional African religions
as having no culture. However, the south can not be considered Christian
by culture, since customary practices such as polygamy have long been an
intrinsic part of southern cultures, even though they are contrary to Christian
Total Energy Consumption (1996E): 0.0690 quadrillion Btu
Energy Consumption per Capita (1996E): 2.3 million Btu
Energy-related Carbon Emissions (1996E): 1.04 million metric tons (0.017% of world carbon emissions)
Carbon Emissions per Capita (1996E):
0.34 metric tons per person/year (v. 5.5 metric tons in US)
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