HISTORY

EARLY HISTORY

Flashpoint for Conflict
Encouraging Hostility
Rise of the Jallaba
Vivid Memories
"My Cousin Mohamed" - poem
 Seasonal Migration
 Dawn of Abolition
 Darfur


BEFORE INDEPENDENCE - 1900-1956

Pacification & Closed Districts
 "Sudanisation"


AFTER INDEPENDENCE - 1956-1989

1956-1989
The First Civil War
 Abyei - A Premonition?
A Ngok Dinka Song
 "Islamic" Law
 Civil War re-ignites
 The SPLA
 Loss of Moral Authority
 Uprising
VIVID MEMORIES
The current inhabitants of Southern Sudan, the Nuba Mountains and Ingessana Hills are the people whose forebears remained free.  Their tribes and families have vivid folk memories of the slave-raiding "Arabs" which influence their relationship with the Northern Sudanese today. 

The bloodlines of many present-day inhabitants of Northern Sudan, by contrast, are an intermingling of Arab and African genes, and many are the descendants of enslaved Africans. 

POEM - My Cousin Mohamed
- from The Myth of Freedom and other poems, by Sirr Anai Kelueijang (see also This Sudan!)

Listen! 

You, Mohamed, and I, are not brothers.
You're the son of my aunt - You're my cousin! 
Long ago your Arab father came, 
with the Holy Koran and his traditional ways, 
But without a mistress for his wife! 

You, cousin Mohamed in the Northern Sudan,
are an offspring of my slave-aunt 
who in her wretchedness stooped to conquer
- by blood-strength -
a reality as large as the Imatong Mountains! 

You are no longer a pure Arab like your father.
You are the hybrid of Africa
The generous product 
of many years of bloody war
on the African land 
Your African Motherland! 

My cousin Mohamed
says he knows everything 
because he is educated. 

When I sing songs 
about Freedom, Justice and Equality, 
My cousin gets angry and shouts at me:

"You Abid! 
You also want to be free,
and be equal to me!"


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